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Understand of 5G Network.


Wireless side: 

mobile phones or group customers are connected to the wireless access network through the base station. On the access network side, they can be solved through RTN, ipran or PTN solutions, transmitting signals to BSC / RNC, and transmitting signals to the core network, in which the network elements inside the core network are carried through the IP Bearer Network.


Fixed network side: 

home customers and customers are connected through the access network, which is mainly GPON, including ont, ODN and OLT. After the signal comes out of the access network, it enters the man. The man can be divided into access layer, aggregation layer and core layer. Bras is the entrance of the man, which is mainly used for authentication, authentication and billing. After the signal comes out of the man, it reaches the backbone network. At the backbone network, it can be divided into access layer and core layer. Among them, China Mobile is cmnet, China Telecom is 169 and China Unicom is 163.


The fixed network side and wireless side can be transmitted through optical fiber. The long-distance transmission is mainly undertaken by Wavelength Division products. The wavelength division products mainly carry a large number of signals through the upgraded version of WDM + SDH. OTN is a signal packaging protocol. Through this signal packaging, it can be better transmitted in the wavelength division system.


Finally, the signal should reach the Internet through the firewall. The firewall is mainly a NAT to realize an address conversion, which is the architecture of the whole network.

After reading the macro structure, let's go deep into each part and read it deeply.


What is wireless access network?

Wireless access network, which is commonly referred to as ran (radio access network). In short, all mobile terminals are connected to the network in the communication network. The well-known base station belongs to the radio access network (RAN).



Wireless base station


Although we started from 1G, went through 2G and 3G, and went all the way to 4G, which is known as. It is the rapid evolution of technology, but the logical architecture of the whole communication network has always been: mobile phone → access network → bearer network → core network → bearer network → access network → mobile phone. The essence of communication process is encoding and decoding, modulation and demodulation, encryption and decryption. There are so many things to do. All kinds of equipment perform their respective duties and complete these things.


The upgrading of communication standards is nothing more than changing the name or location of the equipment, and the functional essence has not changed. The same is true for the base station system and even the whole wireless access network system. A base station usually includes BBU (mainly responsible for signal modulation), RRU (mainly responsible for RF processing), feeder (connecting RRU and antenna), and antenna (mainly responsible for the conversion between guided wave on cable and space wave in air).


Components of base station


In the earliest days, BBU, RRU, power supply unit and other equipment were packed and stuffed in a cabinet or a machine room. Later, slowly began to change. How does it change? The communicators split them up. First, the RRU and BBU are split first. The hardware is no longer put together, and the RRU is usually hung on the wall of the computer room.